This must be accompanied by effective problem solving and flexibility in how work is organized. The marxist approach is mainly practised in communist bloc.
She advises business owners to build and maintain long-term vendor relations through more face-to-face interaction with suppliers than they might be used to in this high-tech age of electronic communication.
In such situation, trade union comes in picture and is seen as a reaction to exploitation by capitalists and also a weapon to bring a revolutionary social change by changing capitalistic system. According to marxists conflict arises because of division within society in terms of haves i.
Doing business with the government can be a lucrative partnership for small organizations. Thus, the establishment and administration of these rules is the major concern or output of the industrial relations system.
Ford Motor Company instituted a small legal department to help workers with the complicated problem of home buying, and then Ford established what he called a sociology department.
Application of quantitative analysis and labour statistics throws light on the exact state of industrial relations during a particular period. Pullman fostered the construction of a community near the Pullman Palace Car Company the town of Pullman, now part of Chicago that would house all the employees and provide for all the essential facilities.
According to this school of thought, there are two major conceptual levels of industrial relations. His book Industrial Relations Systems was a pioneering volume in which he presented an analytical framework of industrial relations. Like pluralists, marxists also view conflict between labour and management as inevitable.
For Marxists industrial and employee relations can only be understood as part of a broader analysis of capitalist society in particular the social relations of production and the dynamics of capital accumulation. Demographic changes Over the years employers have had to broaden the scope of their responsibilities in answer to changes in the demographic makeup of the labour force and to various social issues that affect the employment relationship.
History[ edit ] Industrial relations has its roots in the industrial revolution which created the modern employment relationship by spawning free labour markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers.
This approach presumes the peaceful co-existence of capital and labour. Industrial relations scholars therefore frequently study the diverse institutional arrangements that characterize and shape the employment relationship—from norms and power structures on the shop floor, to employee voice mechanisms in the workplace, to collective bargaining arrangements at company, regional, or national level, to various levels of public policy and labour law regimes,[ citation needed ] to varieties of capitalism  such as corporatismsocial democracyand neoliberalism.
The theories on pluralism were evolved in the mid-sixties and early seventies when England witnessed a dramatic resurgence of industrial conflicts. It is the opposite of the unitary approach, there are different the group within the environment.
For instance, attitudes and morale surveys are powerful tools to discover causes of industrial strife and to evolve methods for their prevention. IR tactics for building vendor relations might entail asking suppliers for advice to show you value their expertise.
Industrial relations scholarship also assumes that there are at least some inherent conflicts of interest between employers and employees for example, higher wages versus higher profits and thus, in contrast to scholarship in human resource management and organizational behaviourconflict is seen as a natural part of the employment relationship.
At times, it may so happen that management in its mediating role may pay insufficient attention to the needs and claims of employees. For this, coercive powers such as strikes, gherao, etc. A host of factors, both internal and external, and conflict generating as well as conflict resolving factors, influence the shape of industrial relations activity.
The Newberry Library, Gift of the Pullman Company, Similarly noteworthy were the paternalistic steps Henry Ford took to help workers make good use of their increasing affluence.
As industries develop, a new industrial-cum-social pattern emerges, which provides general new relationships, institutions and behavioural pattern and new techniques of handling human resources.
And to ensure that companies comply with workplace mandates, they instruct managers and staff of their rights and responsibilities under state and federal laws covering safety, family leave, discrimination and harassment in the workplace.
The proponents of this approach perceive that the employers can survive longer without labour than the employees can without work. It encourages the small work group to exercise considerable control over its environment and in the process helps to remove a major irritant in labour-management relations.
Alwar plant of Eitcher Tractors represents one such example of unitary approach. Therefore, vestiges of both Theory X and Theory Y can be found in the concepts and practices of contemporary organizations. The unitary approach is based on the notion that all the members of the organization Viz.
The following points highlight the six main approaches to industrial relations. The approaches are: 1. Marxist Approach 2. Syndicalism Approach 3. Policy of direct action against capitalism- a general strike to overthrow the system, and (b) A vision of the future society. Industrial Relations, Approaches to Industrial Relations.
Industrial Relations can be maintained when both the labour and management realize • Labour management relations exist within the social, economic and political structures of society • The goal of labour- management relations may state as maximum productivity, leading to rapid economic development, adequate understanding among employers.
Different Approaches to Industrial Relations The industrial relations scenario has been perceived differently by different practitioners and theorists.
Some have viewed it in terns of class conflict; some have viewed it in terms of mutuality of interest of different groups; some have viewed it as a consequence of interaction of various factors both within an.
12/31/ 1 The Approaches & THEORIES OF Industrial Relations DCE Organization, Employee and Community Relations Approaches to Industrial Relations.
The narrow definition of "industrial relations" is a commitment by organizations to foster cooperation between staff and management. IR often is called "employee relations" or "labor relations.Approaches to industrial relation the general