The history and effects of the use of agent orange in american military history

Intwo German chemists prepared the first chlorinated dioxin, but its structure was not understood until much later. High exposure to its dioxins caused cancer and a variety of genetic problems — many of which manifested themselves in children born to mothers who were affected by these dioxins.

Furthermore, by accepting the settlement payments, disabled veterans would become ineligible for many state benefits that provided far more monetary support than the settlement, such as food stampspublic assistanceand government pensions.

Dioxin can then continue to adversely affect people who eat dioxin-contaminated fish, shell fish and water fowl. Included among these events are spraying of waste oil contaminated with dioxin in Times Beach, Missouri; herbicide spraying near Alsea, Oregon; and an accidental explosion at a chemical plant in Seveso, Italy.

This list now includes B cell leukemias, such as hairy cell leukemiaParkinson's disease and ischemic heart diseasethese last three having been added on August 31, Following the conference, the U. He said that he was told by the Army that Agent Orange was "relatively nontoxic to humans and animals" Wilcox, While much of the earlier hesitancy to conduct the herbicide program revolved around concerns of its efficacy, there were also concerns in Washington about how the use of chemical herbicides would be perceived in the world community and how the North Vietnamese government would use the herbicide program as a propaganda tool.

Another motive was to deprive the Vietnamese soldiers of food by destroying their crops. The suit, which sought billions of dollars worth of damages, claimed that Agent Orange and its poisonous effects left a legacy of health problems and that its use constituted a violation of international law.

The war lasted for about 20 long years, from towith neither of the sides surrendering, until the end. InDow Chemical found that combining an equal mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T created a more efficient herbicide than when they were used separately Lilienfeld and Gallo, TCDD is strongly implicated as the main cause of chloracne, a disease that has affected employees in some plants manufacturing 2,4,5-T or its precursor, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol" NAS, Of those discharged for disabilities during World War II, 18 percent were amputees and 3.

Dioxin is one of the components and a toxic contaminant in Agent Orange. Agricultural and Forestry Workers Farmers and forestry workers have been exposed to a variety of chemicals including pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides.

Foresters, including the U. In January29 scientists banded together to protest the U. The federation was concerned about the use of defoliants in Vietnam because the government was not discriminating between fighting forces and civilians while using the herbicides, and that constituted biological and chemical warfare Young and Reggiani, He found that there were no differences in the incidence of stillbirths, congenital malformations, and hydatidiform moles between the two periods Cutting et al.

It includes demographic and work history information for all workers assigned to the production of products contaminated with certain isomers of dioxin.

Wilcox, author of Scorched Earth: Aerial herbicide spray missions in southern Vietnam between and Dioxin can attach to fine soil particles which are then carried by water downstream and settle as sediment in the bottoms of lakes and ponds. Short-term exposure to dioxin can cause darkening of the skin, liver problems and a severe acne-like skin disease called chloracne.

Animal-species diversity was also impacted; in one study a Harvard biologist found 24 species of birds and five species of mammals in a sprayed forest, while in two adjacent sections of unsprayed forest there were and species of birds and 30 and 55 species of mammals.

Despite these efforts, little monetary support is given to Vietnamese veterans and areas outside Da Nang. Agent Orange. Agent Orange is a defoliant, that is, a chemical that kills plants and causes the leaves to fall off the dying plants.

The name was a code devised by the United States military during the development of the chemical mixture. The name arose from the orange band that marked the containers storing the defoliant. Agent Orange was a tactical herbicide used by the U.S.

Facts about the Use of Agent Orange during the Vietnam War

military from tonamed for the orange band around the storage barrel. The military sprayed millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other tactical herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War.

The Use and Effects of Agent Orange in Vietnam Cain W. Crouse Herbicides were sprayed by military forces of the United States during the Vietnam War ().

May 12,  · More than 40 years after the American military used Agent Orange in the Vietnam War, the chemical still casts a long shadow over the Vietnamese and the American.

The short answer is Yes. The military became aware of Agent Orange's side effects during the Vietnam War, but as far as we know, they only became aware of it in and discontinued its use one year later.

The Agent Orange in Vietnam Program is an online resource to help Americans and Vietnamese address the continuing health and environmental impact of herbicides sprayed in Vietnam during the war.

Agent Orange

Sitting between the United States and Vietnam and within the U.S. policy community, this program promotes.

The history and effects of the use of agent orange in american military history
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